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  Hue is one of places, which has many cultural heritages. Up to now, there is no places like Hue remaining a lot of originally historical vestiges as in this ancient Capital City.

On the Northern bank of Perfume River has relics consisting of palaces, which were constructed as arc defensive ramparts with 11km length. This valuable construction includes more than 100 arichectural works which were extremely reflected the life of Emperors and mandarins under Nguyen’ reign. Situated in the middle of hills on the Southern bank of Perfume River are very beautiful tombs of Nguyen Kings. Among these tombs are the four famous ones with the name and the arrangements of the tomb reflected each Emperor’s points of view, personality, and tastes. This is majestic Gia Long tomb, imposing Minh Mang tomb, poetic Tu Duc tomb and magnificent Khai Dinh tomb.

Hue is also an important center of Buddhism. In Hue and its surrounding still exist tens of pagodas constructed more 300 years ago, and a hundred of temples and pagodas built in the early century.

Besides, Hue is a place where the royal music is originated, and a place with traditional famous dishes and sophisticated handicraft.

As a unique city of Vietnam still remains its form of City under Middle Age and the constructions of monarchic, Hue has become a big and an invaluable museum. Therefore, vestiges in Hue ancient capital have been classified by the government as a very precious property and on December 1993 Hue has been recognized as a World Cultural Heritage Site by UNESCO

 

 

 

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Hue Citadel

 

Hue has chosen to be the capital city of the Southern Kingdom by all Nguyen Lords and officially became the capital under Tay Son'reign. For approximately 400 years, Hue has become a great landscape and architectural site. Hue' royal complex has been officially recognized by the UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.

Situated on the Northern bank of the Perfume River, with an area of 500 ha and a system of three circles of ramparts, namely from outside to inside: Kinh Thanh (Capital Citadel), Hoang Thanh (Royal Citadel) and Tu Cam Thanh (Forbidden Citadel).

The Ngu Binh Mountain in the South is used as a front screening elevation. The Con Hen and Con Da Vien (both are sand dunes) on the Perfume River are chosen as geomancy condition "dragon on the left, tiger on the right" to protect the capital city.

Kinh Thanh Hue (Hue Capital Citadel):

This construction stared in 1805 under the reign of Emperor Gia Long and completed in 1832 under the reign of Emperor Ming Mang. Under Nguyen' reign, Kings have ordered to build ramparts, palaces and constructional works of royal. Over 200 years to now, it is still original with nearly 140 small and large constructions.

The Citadel, square in shape and almost 10 km in circumference, 6 m high, 21 m thick and 10 entrances. On the top of the walls that surround it, 24 bastions are established for defensive purposes. Besides, the Citadel has an ancillary gate connecting the Tran Binh Bastion called the Thai Binh Mon (Peace Gate).

 

Hoang Thanh (Royal Citadel):


The Imperial City is located in the centre of the Citadel where established highest offices of Viet Nam's feudalism and sanctums honouring the cult of decreased Emperors. The Citadel, also has a nearly square form, with more than 600m long for each side, built of brick 4m high, 1m thick, around which is ditched a system of protection trench. Access to the Imperial City can be made by four entrance gates. Noon Gate is only used for the King. Royal Palace consists of more 100 beautiful constructional works divided many sectors.

  • From the Ngo Mon to the Thai Hoa Palace: This is the place for setting up various grand ceremonies.
  • Sector for worship shrines of the King of the Nguyen dynasty: Trieu Mieu, Thai Mieu, Hung Mieu, The Mieu and Phung Tien place.
  • Sector for internal affairs office: Storehouse for precious objects, workshop for manufacturing various useful articles.
  • Sectors for the Kham Van palace and the Co Ha garden: place where the princes are studying or enjoying.

Tu Cam Thanh (Forbidden citadel):

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Located inside the Imperial City, behind the Throne Palace, the Forbidden Purple City is reserved for Emperor and his family. Constructed early in Emperor Gia Long'reign in 1804 with brick walls 3.72m high, 0,72 m thick, about 1,230 m in circumference. Its front and back sides are 324 m each while either left and right side is more than 290 m including 50 architectural constructions of different sizes and 7 gates for facilities of entrance and exit. Dai Cung Mon (the Great Place Gate) is in the front side for Kings. Can Chanh Palace (the place for every day working of Emperors). Can Thanh (Emperor's Private Palace), Khon Thai Residence (Queen's Private Apartment) reserved for the Queen. Duyet Thi Duong house (Royal Theatre), Thuong Thien (the kitchen for the King' food), Thai Binh Lau (King's reading room)... Besides, Hue is also famous for royal tombs and temples of Nguyen Kings. Seven tombs with different aspect are not not only a wonderful arch but also combining beautiful, imposing nature and poetic of Hue.

Ancient Hue including Perfume River and Ngu Mountain, palaces and citadels, tombs and temples with hundred of historic years are being embellished and recovered by material contribution of Vietnamese and International community in order to keep Hue City as cultural heritage of World

.

Noon Gate

Located in front of the Throne Palace and facing the Flag Tower, Noon Gate is the main entrance to the Imperial City.

Noon Gate is a huge construction, U-shaped and consisting of two parts: below is a foundation made of brick, Thanh and Quang stone, above is a pavilion made of wood and roofed with tiles.

The longest and widest sides of this 5.2m high foundation are 50m and 27m, respectively. Ascent to the top can be made by two open stone staircases on both sides. There are five entrances, the main one being Noon Gate, paved with Thanh stone, and with red-lacquered doors reserved for the Emperor. The two side-entrances, the Left and Right Gates, were for civil and military mandarins and, inside the branches of the U, are two more gates used by soldiers, elephants, and horses on the royal procession.

 

 

The upper part is the Ngu Phung Pavilion (Pavilion of Five Phoenixes) in the middle, flanked by two wing belvederes of two stories. Viewed from above, the pavilion resembles a group of five phoenixes with beaks joining and wings widespread. They form two rows, two roofs each surrounded with a roofed gallery.

    The middle section of the roof is covered with yellow enameled tiles and others with dark green ones. Along the roof ridges are designs of head-turning dragons, banian leaves and bats with golden coins. Panels along the eaves are decorated with ceramic mosaics of prunes, orchid, chrysanthemum and bamboo. They are bright and harmonious, and very resistant against the rains, typhoons and the passage of time.

   The upper story is supplied with wooden partitions and was exclusively reserved for the Queen Mother and the Emperor's wives. They could look through windows shaped like circles, gongs or fans, but blinds prevented them from being seen from the outside.

The lower story was left open except for the middle compartment which is paneled and supplied with glass-doors. There sat the Emperor on festive occasions. Behind his seat were a big bell and a large drum, which enhanced the importance of the ceremonies. Besides, the drum was often used to herald closing-time of the Imperial City. At this signal, sentries would fire the cannons of the Flag Tower and close, or open, the gates of the citadel.

   Two Chinese characters meaning "Noon Gate" on the front of this construction had originally been gilded with genuine gold. All structural components such as partitions, columns rafters doors and banisters are lacquered red and yellow.

    Noon Gate was also the site where the Emperor received homage from his subjects and ceremonies took place such as: Ceremony of Proclamation of Doctor Lists (successful candidates in the national examination), Calendar Offering Day, etc.

   On the side of the road passing the Noon Gate stand two stone steles inscribed with "Tilt Your Hats and Dismount" reminding passers-by to tilt their hats and get off horses when passing this sanctum.

 

 

                        The Nine Dynastic Urns

 

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       These are the nine greatest bronze urns in Vietnam placed in the shade of the Hien Lam Pavilion, in front of the The Mieu Temple. They were cast by Emperor Minh Mang in 1836 to symbolize the sovereignty of the dynasty.

      Each of them is named after the posthumous title of the emperors worshipped in the Dynastic Temple. For example, Cao Urn is named after Emperor The To Cao (Gia Long), Nhan Urn after Emperor Thanh To Nhan (Minh Mang), Chuong, Anh, Nghi, Tuyen and Thuan Urns after Emperors Thieu Tri, Tu Duc, Kien Phuoc, Dong Khanh and Khai Dinh respectively. (Until 1958 only seven altars were established in The Temple corresponding to seven urns. Du and Huyen Urns did not exist yet.)

     After their casting, the Nine Dynastic Urns were placed in accordance with the disposition of the altars in the Temple. Cao Urn stands in the center, alone in the first row. The others line behind and are placed symmetrically on both sides . On each urn are 17 traditional Vietnamese patterns like stars, rivers, mountains, seas and oceans, vehicles, valuable forestry and sea products, etc. The 153 patterns on the 9 urns constitute a real encyclopedia on the country. This precious cultural heritage is incredibly well-preserved in spite of the harsh weather and the numerous wars.

At first sight, the nine urns are almost alike, but in fact, they all differ in weight and size:

Name

Height

Height of handle

Legs

Mouth

Weight

Cao Urn

2.50m

0.48m

1.05m

1.38m

2.601kg

Nhan Urn

2.31

0.42

0.87

1.36

2.512 -

Chuong Urn

2.27

0.41

0.95

1.35

2.097 -

Anh Urn

2.25

0.42

0.94

1.37

2.595 -

Nghi Urn

2.31

0.41

0.89

1.37

2.575 -

Thuan Urn

2.32

0.42

0.95

1.36

1.950 -

Tuyen Urn

2.45

0.54

0.93

1.37

2.066 -

Du Urn

2.34

0.43

0.96

1.38

2.018 -

Huyen Urn

2.31

0.41

0.95

1.41

1.935 -

 

(Source : Vietnam Tourism info )


 

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